Office: 541-737-2659

Burt Hall

Burt Hall 438

2651 SW Orchard Avenue

2651 SW Orchard Avenue
Corvallis, OR 97331

Profile Field Tabs

Brief Research Interests: 

Climate change, ocean biogeochemical cycles, interactions in the climate system, paleoclimate, ocean circulation




We are looking for a graduate student interested in working on this project (selected student could start fall 2020 or earlier). If you have a good physical sciences and math background, if you're interested in numerical modeling and the ocean's carbon cycle this is the project for you. Contact Andreas Schmittner for questions and/or apply to our graduate program in Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences.


Climate Modeling

Research Interests

Climate Change, Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles, Interactions in the Climate System, Paleoclimate, Ocean Circulation

Current Research

The Biological Pump During the Last Glacial Maximum and Early Deglaciation

Collaborative Research: Assessing the Impact of Tidal Mixing on the Meridional Overturning Circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum

Effects of Acidification and Warming on Long-Term Ocean Carbon Cycling Constrained by Observations

Estimating Climate Sensitivity From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum


Ph.D., Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland, 1999

Diploma, Physics, University Bremen, Germany, 1996


ATS421/521 Introduction to Climate Modeling S19, S15, S13

ATS201 Climate Science S17

ATS320 The Changing Climate F14, F15

ATS320 Man's Impact on Climate W14, S12, S11

OC599/OC669 Introduction to Climate Modeling W11, W09, W07

OC331 Introduction to Oceanography W10, F07


Graduate Students

Juan Muglia, Ph.D. 2017

Christopher J. Somes, M.S. 2009



For pdf's click here.


Thibodeau, B., Not, C., Schmittner, A., Noone, D., Tabor, C., Zhang, J. and Z. Liu (2018) Last century warming over the Canadian Atlantic shelves linked to weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circululation Geophys. Res. Let., 45, 12,376-12,385, doi:10.1029/2018GL080083. html pdf

Muglia, J. Skinner, L., and A. Schmittner (2018) Weak overturning circulation and high Southern Ocean nutrient utilization maximized glacial ocean carbon Earth and Planet. Sci. Let., 496, 47-56, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2018.05.038. html pdf OCB Science Highlight


Muglia, J. Somes, C. J., Nickelsen, L., and A. Schmittner (2017) Combined Effects of Atmospheric and Seafloor Iron Fluxes to the Glacial Ocean Paleoceanography, 32(11), 1204-1218, doi:10.1002/2016PA003077. html pdf

Lacerra, M., D. C. Lund, J. Yu, and A. Schmittner (2017) Carbon storage in the mid-depth Atlantic during millennial-scale climate events Paleoceanography, 32, 780-795, doi:10.1002/2016PA003081. html pdf

Schmittner, A., H. C. Bostock, O. Cartapanis, W. B. Curry, H. L. Filipsson, E. D. Galbraith, J. Gottschalk, J. C. Herguera, S. Jaccard, L. E. Lisiecki, D. C. Lund, G. Martínez-Méndez, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, A. Mackensen, E. Michel, A. C. Mix, D. W. Oppo, C. D. Peterson, E. L. Sikes, H. J. Spero, and C. Waelbroeck (2017) Calibration of the Carbon Isotope Composition (δ13C) of Epibenthic Foraminifera Paleoceanography, 32(6), 512-530, doi:10.1002/2016PA003072. html pdf core-top data water column data Editor's Highlight

Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A., Muglia, J. and A. Oschlies (2017) A three-dimensional model of the marine nitrogen cycle during the Last Glacial Maximum constrained by sedimentary isotopes Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 108, doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00108. html pdf

Ullman, D. J. and A. Schmittner (2017) A cloud feedback emulator (CFE, version 1.0) for an intermediate complexity model Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 945-958, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-945-2017. html pdf Supplement (42 MB)


Bakker, P., Schmittner, A., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bi, D., van den Broeke, M. R., Chan, W.-L., Beadling, R. L., Marsland, S. J., Mernild, S. H., Saenko, O. A., Swingedouw, D., Sullivan, A. and J. Jin (2016) Fate of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation - Strong decline under continued warming and Greenland melting Geophysical Research Letters, 43(23), 12,252-12,260, doi:10.1002/2016GL070457. html pdf EOS Research Spotlight US CLIVAR Research Highlight

Bakker, P., Clark, P. U., Golledge, N. R., Schmittner, A., and M. E. Weber (2016) Centennial-scale Holocene climate variations amplified by Antarctic Ice Sheet discharge Nature, 541, 72–76, doi:10.1038/nature20582. html pdf Press Release

Hertzberg, J. E., Lund, D. C., Schmittner, A. and A. L. Skrivanek (2016) Evidence for a Biological Pump Driver of Atmospheric CO2 Rise during Heinrich Stadial 1 Geophysical Research Letters, 43(23), 12,242-12,251, doi:10.1002/2016GL070723. html pdf

Schmittner, A. (2016) The smoking gun for Atlantic circulation changes, Science, 353 (6298), 445-446, doi:10.1126/science.aag3156. Summary pdf html

Schmittner, A., and C. J. Somes (2016) Complementary Constraints from Carbon (13C) and Nitrogen (15N) Isotopes on the Efficiency of the Glacial Ocean's Soft-Tissue Biological Pump, Paleoceanography, 31, doi:10.1002/2015PA002905. data html pdf 


Green, J. A. M., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Climatic Consequences of a Pine Island Glacier Collapse, Journal of Climate, 28, 9221-9234, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0110.1.html pdf

Buizert, C., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Southern Ocean Control of Glacial AMOC Stability and Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadial Duration, Paleoceanography, 30, doi:10.1002/2015PA002795.html pdf

Muglia, J., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Glacial Atlantic overturning increased by wind stress in climate models, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064583.html pdf supplementary material

Kvale, K. F., Meissner, K. J., Keller, D. P., Eby, M., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Explicit planktic calcifiers in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, Atmosphere-Ocean, 53(3), doi: 10.1080/07055900.2015.1049112.html pdf

Schmittner, A., Green, J. A. M., and Wilmes, S.-B. (2015) Glacial Ocean Overturning Intensified by Tidal Mixing in a Global Circulation Model, Geophysical Research Letters, 42(10), 4014-4022, doi: 10.1002/2015GL063561.html pdf data kudos

Lund, D. C., Tessin, A. C., Hoffman, J. L., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Southwest Atlantic watermass evolution during the last deglaciation, Paleoceanography. 30, doi:10.1002/2014PA002657html pdf

Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (2015) Early deglacial Atlantic overturning decline and its role in atmospheric CO2 rise inferred from carbon isotopes (δ13C), Climate of the Past, 11, 135-152.


Schmittner, A., and Egbert, G. D. (2014) An improved parameterization of tidal mixing for ocean models, Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 211-224, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-211-2014. html, model code, dissipation data and scripts available here


Schmittner, A., Gruber, N., Mix, A. C., Key, R. M., Tagliabue, A., and Westberry, T. K.  (2013) Biology and air-sea gas exchange controls on the distribution of carbon isotope ratios (d13C) in the ocean, Biogeosciences, 10, 5793-5816, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5793-2013. html data: observations at CDIAC, model code & obs at BG

Somes, C. J., Oschlies, A., and Schmittner, A. (2013) Isotopic constraints on the pre-industrial oceanic nitrogen budget, Biogeosciences, 10, 5889-5910, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5889-2013. html

Galbraith, E. D., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Batista, F., Bianchi, D., Calvert, S. E., Contreras Quintana, S., Crosta, X., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Etourneau, J., Francois, R., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S. L., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M. F., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Meckler, A. N., Mix, A. C., Mobius, J., Pedersen, T. F., Quan, T. M., Robinson, R. S., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A. S., Tesdal, J.-E., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. T. (2012) The acceleration of oceanic denitrification during deglacial warming, Nature Geosc., 6, 579–584, doi:10.1038/ngeo1832. html pdf Press Release


Robinson, R. S., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Contreras Quintana, S., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Francois, R., Galbraith, E., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Möbius, J., Pedersen, T., Quan, T. M., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. (2012) A review of nitrogen isotopic alteration in marine sediments, Paleoceanogr., 24, PA4203, doi: 10.1029/2012PA002321. html

Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., Schmittner, A., and Kreutz, K. (2012) Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18711, doi:10.1029/2012GL53018. html

Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Melé, A. (2012) Response to Comment on “Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum”, Science, 337, 1294, doi: 10.1126/science.1221634. html Comment by Fyke and Eby

Pinsonneault, A. J., Matthews, H. D., Galbraith, E. D., and Schmittner, A. (2012) Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification, Biogeosciences, 9, 2351-2364, doi:10.5194/bg-9-2351-2012. html pdf

Ross, A., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Kothavala, Z. (2012) Assessing the Effects of Ocean Diffusivity and Climate Sensitivity on the Rate of Global Climate Change, Tellus B, 64, 17733, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17733. html

Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., He, F., Marcott, S. A., Mix, A. C., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B., Schmittner, A., and Bard, E. (2012) Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation, Nature, 484, 49-54, doi:10.1038/nature10915. html

Zhang, X., Prange, M., Steph, S., Butzin, M., Krebs, U., Lunt, D. J., Nisancioglu, K. H., Park, W., Schmittner, A., Schneider, B., Schulz, M. (2012) Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian Seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 317-318, 76-84, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.028. html


Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Melé, A. (2011) Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum, Science, 334, 1385-1388,doi: 10.1126/science.1203513. Abstract pdf data

Zickfeld, K., Eby, M., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Weaver, A. J. (2011) Nonlinearity of carbon cycle feedbacks, J. Climate, 24,4255–4275, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3898.1. html

Marcott, S. A., Clark, P. U., Padman, L., Klinkhammer, G. P., Springer, S., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Carlson, A. E., Ungerer, A., Padman, J., He, F., Cheng, J. and Schmittner, A., (2011) Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 108 (33), 13415-13419, doi:10.1073/pnas.1104772108 html

Schmittner, A., Silva, T. A. M., Fraedrich, K., Kirk, E. and Lunkeit, F. (2011) Effects of Mountains and Ice Sheets on Global Ocean Circulation, J. Climate, 24, 2814–2829, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3982.1. html Press Release

Alder, C. J., Hostetler, S. W., Pollard, D., and Schmittner, A. (2011) Evaluation of a present-day climate simulation with a new coupled atmosphere-ocean model GENMOM, Geosi. Model Dev., 4, 69-83, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-69-2011. html


Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A. and Altabet, M. A. (2010) Nitrogen isotope simulations show the importance of atmospheric iron deposition for nitrogen fixation across the Pacific Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23605, doi:10.1029/2010GL044537. html

Goes, M., Urban, N. M., Tonkonojenkov, R., Haran, M., Schmittner, A., and Keller, K., (2010) What is the skill of ocean tracers in reducing uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation?, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12006, doi:10.1029/2010JC006407. html

Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A., Galbraith, E. D., Lehmann, M. F., Altabet, M. A., Montoya, J. P., Letelier, R. M., Mix, A. C., Bourbonnais, A., and Eby, M. (2010) Simulating the global distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2009GB003767.  html


Schmittner, A., N. M. Urban, K. Keller, and D. Matthews (2009) Using tracer observations to reduce the uncertainty of ocean diapycnal mixing and climate–carbon cycle projections, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4009, doi:10.1029/2008GB003421. html

Sarnthein, M., G. Bartoli, M. Prange, A. Schmittner, B. Schneider, M. Weinelt, N. Andersen, and D..Garbe-Schonberg (2009) Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates, Clim. Past, 5, 269-283, doi:10.5194/cp-5-269-2009. html


Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith (2008) Glacial greenhouse gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes, Nature, 456, 373-376, doi:10.1038/nature07531. html

Oschlies, A., K. G. Schulz, U. Riebesell, and A. Schmittner (2008) Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB4008, doi:10.1029/2007GB003147. html

Schmittner, A., A. Oschlies, H. D. Matthews, and E. D. Galbraith (2008) Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB1013, doi:10.1029/2007GB002953. html Correction


Clark, P. U., S. W. Hostetler, N. G. Pisias, A. Schmittner, and K. J. Meissner (2007) Mechanisms for a ~7-kyr climate and sea-level oscillation during marine isotope stage 3, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophys. Monograph, vol. 173, edited by Schmittner, A., J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 315-334, American Geophysical Union.

Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn (2007) Impact of the ocean’s overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 173, edited by A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 209-246, American Geophysical Union.

Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith, S. W. Hostetler, T. F. Pedersen, and R. Zhang (2007) Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction, Paleoceanogr., 22, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2006PA001384. html data available at

Schneider, B., M. Latif, and A. Schmittner (2007) Evaluation of different methods to assess model projections of the future evolution of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, J. Climate, 20, 2121-2132.


Schneider, B. and A. Schmittner (2006) Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 246, 367–380.


Schmittner, A., Latif, M. and Schneider, B. (2005) Model Projections of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation for the 21st century assessed by observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23710, doi:10.1029/2005GL024368. html

Schmittner, A., Oschlies, A., Giraud, X., Eby, M. and Simmons H.L. (2005) A Global Model of the Marine Ecosystem for Long Term Simulations: Sensitivity to Ocean Mixing, Buoyancy Forcing, Particle Sinking and Dissolved Organic Matter Cycling, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3004, doi:10.1029/2004GB002283. html

Schmittner, A., (2005) Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 434, 628-633. html

Koesters, F., R. H. Kaese, A. Schmittner and P. Herrmann (2005) The Effect of Denmark Strait Overflow on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04602, doi:10.1029/2004GL022112. html


Schmittner, A., M. Sarnthein, H. Kinkel, G. Bartoli, T. Bickert, M. Crucifix, D. Crudeli, J. Groeneveld, F. Kösters, U. Mikolajewicz, C. Millo, J. Reimer, P. Schäfer, D. Schmidt, B. Schneider, M. Schulz, S. Steph, R. Tiedemann, M. (2004) Global Impact of the Panamanian Seaway Closure, EOS, 85, 526.

Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and A. J. Weaver (2004) The Atlantic-Pacific seesaw, J. Climate, 17, 2033-2038.

Ewen, T., A.J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2004) Modelling carbon cycle feedbacks during abrupt climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 431-448.


Saenko, O. A., A. J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2003) Atlantic deep circulation controlled by freshening in the Southern Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1754, doi:10.1029/2003GL017681. html

Schmittner, A. (2003) Southern Ocean sea ice and radiocarbon ages of glacial bottom waters, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 213, 53-62, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00291-7. html

Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2003) The ventilation of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum - a comparison between simulated and observed radiocarbon ages, Paleoceanogr., 18 (2). doi:10.1029/2002PA000762. html

Schmittner, A., Saenko, O. A. and Weaver,A. J. (2003) Coupling of the hemispheres in observations and simulations of glacial climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 22, 659-671.doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00184-1. html


Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) On the role of wind-driven sea ice motion on ocean ventilation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3376-3395.

Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A., Wiebe, E. C. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Simulations of Heinrich Events in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 10.1029/2001GL013514.

Schmittner, A., Meissner, K. J., Eby, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Forcing of the deep ocean circulation in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2001PA000633. html

Schmittner, A. and Clement, A. C. (2002) Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation to tropical and high latitude freshwater forcing during the last glacial-interglacial cycle, Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2000PA000591. html

Schmittner, A., Yoshimori, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system, Science, 295, 1489-1493. Abstract 


Weaver, A. J., Eby, M., Wiebe, E. C., Bitz, C. M., Duffy, P. B., Ewen, T. L., Fanning, A. F., Holland, M. M., MacFadyen, A., Saenko, O., Schmittner, A., Wang, H. and Yoshimori,M. (2001) The UVic Earth System Climate Model: Model Description, Climatology and Applications to Past, Present and Future Climates, Atmos.-Ocean, 4, 361-428.

Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2001) Dependence of multiple climate states on ocean mixing parameters, Geoph. Res. Let., 28, 1027-1030.

Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F., (2001) A seasonally forced model for paleoclimate studies, J. Climate, 14, 1055-1068.


Appenzeller, C., Stocker, T.F., and Schmittner, A. (2000) Climate change and natural climate variability: chance for surprise? Integr. Assessment, 1, 301-306.

Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000) Enhanced Atlantic freshwater export during El Nino, Geoph. Res. Let., 27, 1163-1166.

Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000) Validation of parametrisations for the meridional energy and moisture transport used in simple climate models, Clim. Dyn., 16, 63-77.


Joos, F., Plattner, G.-K., Stocker, T.F., Marchal, O. and Schmittner, A. (1999) Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2, Science, 284, 464-467. Abstract

Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F. (1999) The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments, J. Climate, 12,1117-1133.


Stocker, T. F. and Schmittner, A. (1997) Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation, Nature, 388, 862-865. html