## Research Interests

Ocean data assimilation, regional modeling, theory of turbulence.

## Current Research

—Testing models of the tropical Pacific circulation by inverse methods; boundary conditions for hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic forecast models; Lagrangian fluid dynamics; quantum mechanics.

## US Support

NASA, NSF, ONR

## The Inverse Ocean Modeling System

The IOM system implements weak-constraint four-dimensional variational assimilation, as described in Bennett (2002), for any ocean model and data set. The first full release of the Inverse Ocean Modeling system is now available for free download from the IOM website (web.cecs.pdx.edu/~zaron/pub/IOM.html). Features include:

- IOM Data Ingest System (IDIS), facilitates assimilation of data from TAO, Jason, Argo and other major web centers. This preprocessor stands alone from the IOM and is downloadable. The documentation is in IOM Tech Doc No. 6 (IOM User Manual).
- GUI control of the IOM
- automatic generation of tangent-linear and adjoint models
- automatic generation of inversion utilities consistent with a user's model
- pre-installed tutorial models (1D wave, shallow-water, Korteweg- DeVries)
- installation (registration) guide for the user's model
- automatic generation of univariate error covariances
- acceptance of user-supplied multivariate initial error covariances
- partial or full inversions
- observing system assessment
- powerful NetCDF output
- extensive diagnostics and test statistics
- adjoint sensitivity analysis
- introduction to Fortran template programming in Parametric Fortran
- extensive theoretical commentary

**Documentation**: the totally revised manual is now released as IOM Technical Document No. 6: User Manual v1.4 This 230-page manual, also available for free download from the IOM website (web.cecs.pdx.edu/~zaron/pub/IOM.html), is divided into two parts:

I. Chapters 1-13 The IOM System II. Chapters 14-21 The IOM Algorithm

The manual has been prepared with LaTeX documentclass{book} and is suitable for double-sided printing. If you have a duplex printer, configure your pdf reader as follows:

\File\Print Setup\Properties\Layout

Portrait

Flip on Long Edge

Front to Back

All earlier IOM Technical Documents have been withdrawn.

## Education

BSc, University of Western Australia (Mathematics), 1966

PhD, Harvard University (Applied Mathematics), 1971

## Affiliations

1999-2000 US Navy Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Montery CA USA (Distinguished Visiting Scientist)

1987-present: College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR USA (Professor with Tenure 1987-2005, Professor Emeritus 2005-present)

1982-1987: Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney BC Canada (Research Scientist)

1972-1982 Department of Mathematics, Monash University, Melbourne VIC Australia (Queen’s Fellow in Marine Science, Lecturer, Senior Lecturer)

## Awards

American Geophysical Union, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, Editor’s Award (1996)

American Meteorological Society, Journal of Physical Oceanography, Editor’s Award (1987)

## Books

[1] Andrew F. Bennett. Inverse Methods in Physical Oceanography. Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

[2] Andrew F. Bennett. Inverse Modeling of the Ocean and Atmosphere. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

[3] Andrew F. Bennett. Lagrangian Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

**Publications**

[1] Bennett, Andrew F. (2019) The geometry of neutral paths. *J. Phys. Oceanogr., v49, 12, 3037-3044*.

[2] A. F. Bennett. Duﬃn-Kemmer-Petiau particles are bosons. Found. Phys., 46(9):1090–1108, September 2016.

[3] A. F. Bennett. Spin-statistics connection for relativistic quantum mechanics. Found. Phys., 45(4):370–381, April 2015.

[4] A. F. Bennett. First quantized electrodynamics. Annals of Physics, 345C:1– 16, 2014.

[5] A. Bennett. Relative dispersion in a single realization of divergent ﬂow. Deep–Sea Research II, 85:6–14, January 2013.

[6] A. F. Bennett. The Stueckelberg wave equation and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 45(285302):(12pp), 2012.

[7] A. F. Bennett. Relative dispersion and quantum thermal equilibrium in de Broglie-Bohm mechanics. J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 43(19/195304):(19pp), 2010.

[8] J. C. Muccino, H. G. Arango, A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, B. D. Cornuelle, E. Di Lorenzo, G. D. Egbert, D. Haidvogel, J. C. Levin, H. Luo, A. J. Miller, A. M. Moore, and E. D. Zaron. The Inverse Ocean Modeling System. Part II: Applications. J. Atmos. Oc. Tech., 25:1623–1637, September 2008.

[9] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, B. L. Pﬂaum, M. Erwig, Z. Fu, R. D. Loft, and J. C. Muccino. The Inverse Ocean Modeling System. Part I: Implementation. J. Atmos. Oc. Tech., 25:1608–1622, September 2008.

[10] E. Di Lorenzo, A. M. Moore, H. G. Arango, B. D. Cornuelle, A. J. Miller, B. Powell, B. S. Chua, and A. F. Bennett. Weak and strong constraint data assimilation in the inverse Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Development and application for a baroclinic coastal upwelling system. Oc. Model., 16:160–187, 2007.

[11] J. C. Levin, D. B. Haidvogel, B. S. Chua, A. F. Bennett, and M. Iskandarani. Euler–Lagrange equations for the spectral element shallow water system. Oc. Model., pages 89–111, 2006.

[12] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, H. E. Ngodock, D. E. Harrison, and M. J. McPhaden. Generalized inversion of the Gent–Cane model of the tropical Paciﬁc with Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean (TAO) data. J. Mar. Res., 64:1– 42, 2006.

[13] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, and J. R. Taylor. Lattice Boltzmann open boundaries for hydrodynamic models. J. Comp. Phys., 203:89–111, 2005.

[14] J. C. Muccino, N. F. Hubele, and A. F. Bennett. Signiﬁcance testing for variational assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 130:1815–1838, 2004.

[15] J. C. Muccino and A. F. Bennett. Initial–boundary compatibility for inverse regional models. Tellus, 56A:141–153, 2004.

[16] J. C. Muccino and A. F. Bennett. Generalized inversion of the Korteweg–de Vries equation. Dyn. Atmos. Oc., 35:227–263, 2002.

[17] J. L. Mead and A. F. Bennett. Towards regional assimilation of Lagrangian data: the Lagrangian form of the shallow water model and its inverse. J. Mar. Sys., 29:365–384, 2001.

[18] B. S. Chua and A. F. Bennett. An inverse ocean modeling system. Oc. Model., 3:137–165, 2001.

[19] H. E. Ngodock, B. S. Chua, and A. F. Bennett. Generalized inverse of a reduced gravity primitive equation ocean model and Tropical Atmosphere– Ocean data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128(6):1757–1777, June 2000.

[20] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, D. E. Harrison, and M. J. McPhaden. Generalized inversion of Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean (TAO) data and a coupled model of the Tropical Paciﬁc. Part ii: the 1995–96 La Ni˜na and 1997–98 El Ni˜no. J. Climate, 13(15):2770–2785, August 2000.

[21] A. F. Bennett and B. S. Chua. Open boundary conditions for Lagrangian geophysical ﬂuid dynamics. J. Comp. Phys., 153:418–436, 1999.

[22] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, D. E. Harrison, and M. J. McPhaden. Generalized inversion of Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean (TAO) data and a coupled model of the Tropical Paciﬁc. J. Climate, 11(7):1768–1792, July 1998.

[23] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, and L. M. Leslie. Generalized inversion of global numerical weather prediction model, ii: analysis and implementation. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 62(3-4):129–140, 1997.

[24] J. F. Le Marshall, L. M. Leslie, and A. F. Bennett. Tropical Cyclone Beti– an example of the beneﬁst of assimilating hourly satellite wind data. Aust. Met. Mag., pages 275–279, 1996.

[25] R. L. Higdon and A. F. Bennett. Stability analysis of operator splitting for large–scale ocean modeling. J. Comp. Phys., 123:311–329, 1996.

[26] C. Hagelberg, A. F. Bennett, and D. A. Jones. Local existence results for the generalized inverse of the vorticity equation in the plane. Inverse Problems, 12:437–454, 1996.

[27] G. D. Egbert and A. F. Bennett. Data assimilation methods for ocean tides. In P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, editor, Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling, number 61 in Elsevier Oceanography Series, pages 147–179. Elsevier, 1996.

[28] A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, and L. M. Leslie. Generalized inversion of a global numerical weather prediction model. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 60(13):165–178, 1996.

[29] A. F. Bennett. Particle displacements in inhomogeneous turbulence. In R. J. Adler, P. M¨uller, and B. Rozovskii, editors, Stochastic Modelling in Physical Oceanography, volume 39 of Progress in Probability, pages 1–45. Birkh¨auser, 1996.

[30] C. Le Provost, A. F. Bennett, and D. E. Cartwright. Ocean tides for and from TOPEX/POSEIDON. Science, 267:639–642, February 1995.

[31] R. N. Miller, E. D. Zaron, and A. F. Bennett. Data assimilation in models with convective adjustment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122(11):2607–2612, November 1994.

[32] G. D. Egbert, A. F. Bennett, and M. G. G. Foreman. TOPEX/POSEIDON tides estimated using a global inverse model. J. Geophys. Res, 99(C12):24,821–24,852, December 1994.

[33] A. F. Bennett and B. S. Chua. Open-ocean modeling as an inverse problem: the primitive equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122(6):1326–1336, June 1994.

[34] R. A. De Szoeke and A. F. Bennett. Microstructure ﬂuxes across density interfaces. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23(10):2254–2264, October 1993.

[35] A. F. Bennett, L. M. Leslie, C. R. Hagelberg, and P. E. Powers. Tropical cyclone prediction using a barotropic model initialized by a generalized inverse method. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121(6):1714–1729, June 1993.

[36] L. M. Leslie and A. F. Bennett. Comments on “Short-term systematic errors in global forecasts: their estimation and removal” by H. J. Thi´ebaux and L. L. Marone. Tellus, 44A(3):270–271, 1992.

[37] A. F. Bennett and M. T. Thorburn. The generalized inverse of a nonlinear quaigeostrophic ocean circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22(3):213– 230, March 1992.

[38] A. F. Bennett, C. Hagelberg, and L. Leslie. Predicting hurricane tracks. Nature, 360(6403):423, December 1992.

[39] A. F. Bennett and J. R. Baugh. A parallel algorithm for variational assimilation in oceaography and meteorology. J. Atmos. Oc. Tech, 9(4):426–433, 1992.

[40] P. J. Hatcher, M. J. Quinn, Anderson. R. J., A. J. Lapadula, B. K. Seevers, and A. F. Bennett. Architecture–dependent scientiﬁc programming in data parallel C: three case studies. In Proceedings of the 1991 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing, Supercomputing ‘91, pages 208–217, New York, NY, USA, 1991. ACM.

[41] A. F. Bennett and R. N. Miller. Weighting initial conditions in variational assimilation schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev, 119(4):1098–1102, April 1991.

[42] A. F. Bennett. Inverse methods for assessing ship–of–opportunity networks and estimating circulation and winds from tropical eXpendable BathyThermograph data. J. Geophys. Res, 95(C9):16111–16148, September 1990.

[43] M. G. G. Foreman and A. F. Bennett. On calculating vorticity balances in primitive equation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19(9):1407–1411, September 1989.

[44] A. F. Bennett and K. L. Denman. Large–scale patchiness due to an annual plankton cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 94(C1):823–829, January 1989.

[45] A. F. Bennett and W. P. Budgell. The Kalman smoother for a linear quasi– geostrophic model of ocean circulation. Dyn. Atmos. Oc., 13:219–267, 1989.

[46] A. J. Weaver, L. A. Mysak, and A. F. Bennett. The steady state response of the atmosphere to midlatitude heating with various zonal structures. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, 41:1–44, 1988.

[47] R. N. Miller and A. F. Bennett. Numerical simulation of ﬂows with locally characteristic boundaries. Tellus, 40A:303–323, 1988.

[48] M. G. G. Foreman and A. F. Bennett. On no-slip boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Dyn. Atmos. Oc., 12:47–70, 1988.

[49] M. G. G. Foreman and A. F. Bennett. A numerical stability analysis for the two–dimensional incompressible euler equations. J. Comp. Phys., 79(1):70– 84, November 1988.

[50] A. F. Bennett and P. F. Cummins. Tracking fronts in solutions of the shallow-water equations. J. Geophys. Res., 93(C2):1293–1301, February 1988.

[51] D. L. Mackas, K. L. Denman, and A. F. Bennett. Least squares multiple tracer analysis of water mass composition. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C3):2907– 2918, 1987.

[52] A. F. Bennett and W. P. Budgell. Ocean data assimilation and the Kalman ﬁlter: spatial regularity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17(10):1583–1601, October 1987.

[53] A. F. Bennett. A Lagrangian analysis of turbulent diﬀusion. Rev. Geophys., 25(4):799–822, May 1987.

[54] A. F. Bennett and W.B. White. Eddy heat ﬂux in the subtropical North Paciﬁc. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16(4):728–740, April 1986.

[55] A. F. Bennett. Random walks with manholes: simple models of dispersion in turbulence with coherent vortices. J. Geophys. Res., 91(C9):10769– 10770, September 1986.

[56] A. F. Bennett. High wavenumber spectrum of a passive scalar in isotropic turbulence. Phys. Fluids, 29(5):1734–1735, May 1986.

[57] A. F. Bennett and K. L. Denman. Phytoplankton patchiness: inferences from particle statistics. J. Mar. Res., 43:307–335, 1985.

[58] A. F. Bennett. Array design by inverse methods. Prog. Oceanogr., 15:129– 156, 1985.

[59] P. C. McIntosh and A. F. Bennett. Open ocean modeling as an inverse problem: M2 tides in Bass Strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14(3):601–614, March 1984.

[60] A. F. Bennett. Relative dispersion: local and nonlocal dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 41(11):1881–1886, 1984.

[61] A. F. Bennett. Predictability and frontogenesis. In G. Holloway and B. J. West, editors, Predictability of Fluid Motions, number 106 in AIP Conference Proceedings, pages 295–302, New York, 1984. American Institute of Physics, AIP.

[62] E. Wolanski and A. F. Bennett. Continental shelf waves and their inﬂuence on the circulation around the Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 34:23–47, 1983.

[63] A. F. Bennett and J. F. Middleton. Statistical mechanics of a ﬁnite difference approximation to the barotropic vorticity equation. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 109:795–808, 1983.

[64] A. F. Bennett and L. M. Leslie. Statistical correction of dynamical prognoses: the decision problem. Mon. Wea. Rev, 111(2):343–352, February 1983.

[65] A. F. Bennett and D. B. Haidvogel. Low-resolution numerical simulation of decaying two-dimensional turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 40(3):738–748, March 1983.

[66] A. F. Bennett. The South Paciﬁc including the East Australian Current. In A. R. Robinson, editor, Eddies in Marine Science, chapter 12. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983.

[67] A. F. Bennett and P. C. McIntosh. Open ocean modeling as an inverse problem: tidal theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12(10):1004–1018, October 1982.

[68] A. F. Bennett and L. M. Leslie. Statistical correction of thickness height prognoses. Aust. Met. Mag., 30:201–203, 1982.

[69] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. The periodic quasigeostrophic equation: existence and uniqueness of strong solutions. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 91A:185–203, 1982.

[70] A.F. Bennett and P.E. Kloeden. The quasi geostrophic equations: approximation, predictability and equilibrium spectra of solutions,. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 107:121–136, 1981.

[71] A. F. Bennett and L. M. Leslie. Statistical correction of the Australian Region Primitive Equation model. Mon. Wea. Rev, 109(3):453–462, March 1981.

[72] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. Viscous motion in an ocean circulation model. Bull. Austral. Math. Soc., 23(3):443–460, June 1981.

[73] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. The quasi-geostrophic equation: approximations, predictability and equilibirium spectra of solutions. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 107(451):121–136, January 1981.

[74] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. The ill-posedness of open ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11:1027–1029, 1981.

[75] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. Dissipative quasigeostrophic motion and ocean modelling. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, 18:253–262, 1981.

[76] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. The dissipative quasigeostrophic equations. Mathematika, 28:265–285, 1981.

[77] K. Jeyapalan and A. F. Bennett. Corner eﬀects in a free shear layer. ZAMP, 31:533–535, 1980.

[78] A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden. The simpliﬁed quasigeostrophic equations: existence and uniqueness of strong solutions. Mathematika, 27:287– 311, 1980.

[79] A. F. Bennett and L. M. Leslie. Statistical correction of dynamical prognoses in the Australian region. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107(10):1254–1262, October 1979.

[80] A.F. Bennett and P.E. Kloeden. Boundary conditions for limited area forecasts. J. Atmos. Sci., 35:990–996, 1978.

[81] A. F. Bennett. Poleward heat ﬂux in Southern Hemisphere oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8(5):785–798, September 1978.

[82] A. F. Bennett. Open boundary conditions for dispersive waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 33:176–182, February 1976.

[83] A. F. Bennett and T. Long. An electro–mechanical tide gauge. Int. Hydr. Rev., LII(1):137–142, 1975.

[84] A. F. Bennett. Tides in the Bristol Channel. Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 40:37–43, 1975.

[85] A. F. Bennett. Parametric representation of tidal shallows. Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 38:389–396, 1974.

[86] A. F. Bennett. Inertial eﬀects in an oceanic circulation model. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, 5:113–142, 1973.