Professor Emeritus

Keck Collaboratory for Plasma Spectrometry

Research Interests

Exploration for hydrothermal activity; geochemistry of sediment and pore water; particle-metal interaction; application of trace metals as paleoproxies; chemical analysis of geological materials; design of chemical sensors for environmental and oceanographic studies; geochemistry of the rare Earth elements; development of paleoproxies for paleo-oceanographic applications.

Current Research

Studies of sediment diagenesis and its effect on the sediment record; exploration of mid-ocean ridges for hydrothermal activity using geochemical sensors; understanding the rare earth geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids; developing deep-sea spectrometers. Director: W.M. Keck Collaboratory for Plasma Spectrometry


BS, Minnesota Institute of Technology (Chemistry), 1972
MS, University of Rhode Island (Oceanography), 1977
PhD, University of Rhode Island (Oceanography), 1979


Klinkhammer G.P., R.F. Weiss and M.L. Bender (1977) Hydrothermal manganese in the Galapagos Rift, Nature, 269, 319-320.

Klinkhammer G. and M. Bender (1980) The distribution of manganese in the Pacific Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 46, 361-384.

Klinkhammer G. (1980) Observations of the distribution of manganese over the East Pacific Rise, Chem. Geol., 29, 211-226.

Klinkhammer G.P. and M.L. Bender (1981) Trace metal distributions in the Hudson River Estuary, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci, 12, 629-643.

Klinkhammer G., D.T. Heggie and D.W. Graham (1982) Metal diagenesis in oxic marine sediments. Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett. 61, 211-219.

Klinkhammer G., H. Elderfield and A. Hudson (1983) Rare earth elements in seawater near hydrothermal vents, Nature, 305, 185-188.

Klinkhammer G., P. Rona, M. Greaves and H. Elderfield (1985) Hydrothermal manganese plumes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley, Nature, 314, 727-731.

Klinkhammer G. and A. Hudson (1986) Dispersal patterns for hydrothermal plumes in the South Pacific using manganese as a tracer, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 79, 241-249.

Klinkhammer G., H. Elderfield, M. Greaves, P. Rona and T. Nelsen (1986) Manganese geochemistry near high-temperature vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 80, 230-240.

Klinkhammer G.P. and C.E. Lambert (1989) Preservation of organic matter during salinity excursions, Nature, 339, 271-274.

Klinkhammer G.P. and L.H. Chan (1990) Determination of barium in marine waters by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 232, 323-329.

Klinkhammer, G.P. and M.R. Palmer (1991) Uranium in the oceans: where it goes and why, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 1799-1806.

Klinkhammer G., C.R. German, H. Elderfield, M.J. Greaves and A. Mitra (1994) Rare earth elements in hydrothermal fluids and plume particulates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Mar. Chem., 45, 179-186.

Klinkhammer G. (1994) Fiber optic spectrometers for in situ measurements in the oceans: The ZAPS Probe, Mar. Chem., 47, 13-20.

Klinkhammer G.P., H. Elderfield, J.M. Edmond and A. Mitra (1994) Geochemical implications of rare earth patterns in hydrothermal fluids from mid-ocean ridges, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 5105-5113.

Klinkhammer G., C. Wilson, C. Chin and C. German (1995) Rare earth element data for hydrothermal fluids and other results from the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field on the MAR at 37_17'N, In: Hydrothermal Vents and Processes (L.M. Parson, C.L. Walker, and D.R. Dixon, eds.), Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 87, 87-96.

Klinkhammer G.P., C. Chin, C. Wilson, M.D. Rudnicki and C.R. German (1997) Distributions of dissolved manganese and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Columbia River estuary and plume as determined by in situ measurement, Mar. Chem., 56, 1-14.

McManus J., W.M. Berelson, G.P. Klinkhammer, K.S. Johnson, K.H. Coale, R. Anderson, N. Kumar, D.J. Burdige, D.E. Hammond, H.J. Brumsack and D.C. McCorkle (1999) Geochemistry of barium in marine sediments: Implications for its use as a paleoproxy, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 62, 3453-3473.

Guay C.K., G.P. Klinkhammer, K. Kenison Falkner, R. Benner, B. Black, P.G. Coble and F.J. Bussell (1999) High-resolution measurements of dissolved organic carbon in the Arctic Ocean by in-situ fiber-optic spectrometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1007-1010.

German C.R., M.D. Rudnicki and G.P. Klinkhammer (1999) A segment-scale survey of the Broken Spur hydrothermal plume, Deep-Sea Res. I, 46, 701-714.

Klinkhammer G.P., J. McManus, D. Colbert and M.D. Rudnicki (2000) Behavior of terrestrial dissolved organic matter at the continent-ocean boundary from high-resolution distributions, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64, 2765-2774.

Klinkhammer G.P. and J. McManus (2001) Dissolved manganese in the Columbia River estuary: Production in the water column, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 2835-2841.

Klinkhammer G.P., C.S. Chin, R.A. Keller, A. Daehlmann, H. Sahling, G. Sarthou, S. Petersen, F. Smith and C. Wilson (2001) Discovery of new hydrothermal vent sites in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 193, 395-407.

Haley, B.A. and G.P. Klinkhammer (2002) Development of a flow-through system for cleaning and dissolving foraminiferal tests, Chem. Geol., 185, 51-69.

Dahlmann A. , K. Wallmann , H. Sahling , G. Sarthou , G. Bohrmann , S. Petersen , C.S. Chin , G.P. Klinkhammer(2001) Hot vents in an ice-cold ocean: Indications for phase separation at the southernmost area of hydrothermal activity, Bransfield Strait, Antarctica,Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 193, 395-407.

Benway H.M., B. A. Haley, G. P. Klinkhammer, and A. C. Mix (2003) Adaptation of a flow-through leaching procedure for Mg/Ca paleothermometry, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(2).