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    Andreas Schmittner

    Andreas Schmittner photo
    Associate Professor
    Discipline: Physics of Oceans and Atmospheres
    Secondary Discipline: Ocean Ecology and Biogeochemistry
    Office: Burt 256
    Phone: 541-737-9952
    Fax: 541-737-2064
    Email: aschmittner@coas.oregonstate.edu
    Vita or Résumé


    Climate Modeling

    Research Interests

    Climate Change, Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles, Interactions in the Climate System, Paleoclimate, Ocean Circulation

    Current Research

    The Biological Pump During the Last Glacial Maximum and Early Deglaciation

    Collaborative Research: Assessing the Impact of Tidal Mixing on the Meridional Overturning Circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Effects of Acidification and Warming on Long-Term Ocean Carbon Cycling Constrained by Observations

    Estimating Climate Sensitivity From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Assessing Climate Model Simulations of Last Glacial Maximum Ocean Circulation with Carbon Isotopes

    Quantifying the Effect of the Lunar Nodal Tide on North Pacific Climate Variability

    Modeling Effects of Greenland Ice Sheet Melting on Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability and Predictability



    Ph.D., Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland, 1999

    Diploma, Physics, University Bremen, Germany, 1996


    ATS320 The Changing Climate F14

    ATS320 Man's Impact on Climate W14, S12, S11

    OC599/OC669 Introduction to Climate Modeling S13, W11, W09, W07

    OC331 Introduction to Oceanography W10, F07


    Graduate Students

    Juan Muglia

    Christopher J. Somes, M.S. 2009



    For pdf's click here.


    Schmittner, A. (2016) The smoking gun for Atlantic circulation changes, Science, 353 (6298), 445-446, doi:10.1126/science.aag3156. Summary pdf html

    Schmittner, A., and C. J. Somes (2016) Complementary Constraints from Carbon (13C) and Nitrogen (15N) Isotopes on the Efficiency of the Glacial Ocean's Soft-Tissue Biological Pump, Paleoceanography, 31, doi:10.1002/2015PA002905. data html pdf 


    Green, J. A. M., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Climatic Consequences of a Pine Island Glacier Collapse, Journal of Climate, 28, 9221-9234, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0110.1.html pdf

    Buizert, C., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Southern Ocean Control of Glacial AMOC Stability and Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadial Duration, Paleoceanography, 30, doi:10.1002/2015PA002795.html pdf

    Muglia, J., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Glacial Atlantic overturning increased by wind stress in climate models, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064583.html pdf supplementary material

    Kvale, K. F., Meissner, K. J., Keller, D. P., Eby, M., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Explicit planktic calcifiers in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, Atmosphere-Ocean, 53(3), doi: 10.1080/07055900.2015.1049112.html pdf

    Schmittner, A., Green, J. A. M., and Wilmes, S.-B. (2015) Glacial Ocean Overturning Intensified by Tidal Mixing in a Global Circulation Model, Geophysical Research Letters, 42(10), 4014-4022, doi: 10.1002/2015GL063561.html pdf data kudos

    Lund, D. C., Tessin, A. C., Hoffman, J. L., and Schmittner, A. (2015) Southwest Atlantic watermass evolution during the last deglaciation, Paleoceanography. 30, doi:10.1002/2014PA002657html pdf

    Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (2015) Early deglacial Atlantic overturning decline and its role in atmospheric CO2 rise inferred from carbon isotopes (δ13C), Climate of the Past, 11, 135-152.


    Schmittner, A., and Egbert, G. D. (2014) An improved parameterization of tidal mixing for ocean models, Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 211-224, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-211-2014. html, model code, dissipation data and scripts available here


    Schmittner, A., Gruber, N., Mix, A. C., Key, R. M., Tagliabue, A., and Westberry, T. K.  (2013) Biology and air-sea gas exchange controls on the distribution of carbon isotope ratios (d13C) in the ocean, Biogeosciences, 10, 5793-5816, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5793-2013. html data: observations at CDIAC, model code & obs at BG

    Somes, C. J., Oschlies, A., and Schmittner, A. (2013) Isotopic constraints on the pre-industrial oceanic nitrogen budget, Biogeosciences, 10, 5889-5910, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-5889-2013. html

    Galbraith, E. D., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Batista, F., Bianchi, D., Calvert, S. E., Contreras Quintana, S., Crosta, X., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Etourneau, J., Francois, R., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S. L., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M. F., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Meckler, A. N., Mix, A. C., Mobius, J., Pedersen, T. F., Quan, T. M., Robinson, R. S., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A. S., Tesdal, J.-E., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. T. (2012) The acceleration of oceanic denitrification during deglacial warming, Nature Geosc., 6, 579–584, doi:10.1038/ngeo1832. html pdf Press Release


    Robinson, R. S., Kienast, M., Albuquerque, A. L., Altabet, M., Contreras Quintana, S., De Pol Holz, R., Dubois, N., Francois, R., Galbraith, E., Hsu, T.-C., Ivanochko, T., Jaccard, S., Kao, S.-J., Kiefer, T., Kienast, S., Lehmann, M., Martinez, P., McCarthy, M., Möbius, J., Pedersen, T., Quan, T. M., Ryabenko, E., Schmittner, A., Schneider, R., Schneider-Mor, A., Shigemitsu, M., Sinclair, D., Somes, C., Studer, A., Thunell, R., and Yang, J.-Y. (2012) A review of nitrogen isotopic alteration in marine sediments, Paleoceanogr., 24, PA4203, doi: 10.1029/2012PA002321. html

    Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., Schmittner, A., and Kreutz, K. (2012) Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18711, doi:10.1029/2012GL53018. html

    Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Melé, A. (2012) Response to Comment on “Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum”, Science, 337, 1294, doi: 10.1126/science.1221634. html Comment by Fyke and Eby

    Pinsonneault, A. J., Matthews, H. D., Galbraith, E. D., and Schmittner, A. (2012) Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification, Biogeosciences, 9, 2351-2364, doi:10.5194/bg-9-2351-2012. html pdf

    Ross, A., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Kothavala, Z. (2012) Assessing the Effects of Ocean Diffusivity and Climate Sensitivity on the Rate of Global Climate Change, Tellus B, 64, 17733, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17733. html

    Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., He, F., Marcott, S. A., Mix, A. C., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B., Schmittner, A., and Bard, E. (2012) Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation, Nature, 484, 49-54, doi:10.1038/nature10915. html

    Zhang, X., Prange, M., Steph, S., Butzin, M., Krebs, U., Lunt, D. J., Nisancioglu, K. H., Park, W., Schmittner, A., Schneider, B., Schulz, M. (2012) Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian Seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 317-318, 76-84, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.028. html


    Schmittner, A., Urban N. M., Shakun, J. D., Mahowald, N. M., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C., and Rosell-Melé, A. (2011) Climate Sensitivity Estimated From Temperature Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum, Science, 334, 1385-1388,doi: 10.1126/science.1203513. Abstract pdf data

    Zickfeld, K., Eby, M., Matthews, H. D., Schmittner, A., and Weaver, A. J. (2011) Nonlinearity of carbon cycle feedbacks, J. Climate, 24,4255–4275, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3898.1. html

    Marcott, S. A., Clark, P. U., Padman, L., Klinkhammer, G. P., Springer, S., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Carlson, A. E., Ungerer, A., Padman, J., He, F., Cheng, J. and Schmittner, A., (2011) Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 108 (33), 13415-13419, doi:10.1073/pnas.1104772108 html

    Schmittner, A., Silva, T. A. M., Fraedrich, K., Kirk, E. and Lunkeit, F. (2011) Effects of Mountains and Ice Sheets on Global Ocean Circulation, J. Climate, 24, 2814–2829, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3982.1. html Press Release

    Alder, C. J., Hostetler, S. W., Pollard, D., and Schmittner, A. (2011) Evaluation of a present-day climate simulation with a new coupled atmosphere-ocean model GENMOM, Geosi. Model Dev., 4, 69-83, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-69-2011. html


    Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A. and Altabet, M. A. (2010) Nitrogen isotope simulations show the importance of atmospheric iron deposition for nitrogen fixation across the Pacific Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23605, doi:10.1029/2010GL044537. html

    Goes, M., Urban, N. M., Tonkonojenkov, R., Haran, M., Schmittner, A., and Keller, K., (2010) What is the skill of ocean tracers in reducing uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation?, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12006, doi:10.1029/2010JC006407. html

    Somes, C. J., Schmittner, A., Galbraith, E. D., Lehmann, M. F., Altabet, M. A., Montoya, J. P., Letelier, R. M., Mix, A. C., Bourbonnais, A., and Eby, M. (2010) Simulating the global distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB4019, doi:10.1029/2009GB003767.  html


    Schmittner, A., N. M. Urban, K. Keller, and D. Matthews (2009) Using tracer observations to reduce the uncertainty of ocean diapycnal mixing and climate–carbon cycle projections, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4009, doi:10.1029/2008GB003421. html

    Sarnthein, M., G. Bartoli, M. Prange, A. Schmittner, B. Schneider, M. Weinelt, N. Andersen, and D..Garbe-Schonberg (2009) Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates, Clim. Past, 5, 269-283, doi:10.5194/cp-5-269-2009. html


    Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith (2008) Glacial greenhouse gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes, Nature, 456, 373-376, doi:10.1038/nature07531. html

    Oschlies, A., K. G. Schulz, U. Riebesell, and A. Schmittner (2008) Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB4008, doi:10.1029/2007GB003147. html

    Schmittner, A., A. Oschlies, H. D. Matthews, and E. D. Galbraith (2008) Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB1013, doi:10.1029/2007GB002953. html Correction


    Clark, P. U., S. W. Hostetler, N. G. Pisias, A. Schmittner, and K. J. Meissner (2007) Mechanisms for a ~7-kyr climate and sea-level oscillation during marine isotope stage 3, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophys. Monograph, vol. 173, edited by Schmittner, A., J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 315-334, American Geophysical Union.

    Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn (2007) Impact of the ocean’s overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 173, edited by A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, pp. 209-246, American Geophysical Union.

    Schmittner, A., E. D. Galbraith, S. W. Hostetler, T. F. Pedersen, and R. Zhang (2007) Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction, Paleoceanogr., 22, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2006PA001384. html data available at ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/gcmoutput/uvic/schmittner2007/

    Schneider, B., M. Latif, and A. Schmittner (2007) Evaluation of different methods to assess model projections of the future evolution of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, J. Climate, 20, 2121-2132.


    Schneider, B. and A. Schmittner (2006) Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 246, 367–380.


    Schmittner, A., Latif, M. and Schneider, B. (2005) Model Projections of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation for the 21st century assessed by observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23710, doi:10.1029/2005GL024368. html

    Schmittner, A., Oschlies, A., Giraud, X., Eby, M. and Simmons H.L. (2005) A Global Model of the Marine Ecosystem for Long Term Simulations: Sensitivity to Ocean Mixing, Buoyancy Forcing, Particle Sinking and Dissolved Organic Matter Cycling, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3004, doi:10.1029/2004GB002283. html

    Schmittner, A., (2005) Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 434, 628-633. html

    Koesters, F., R. H. Kaese, A. Schmittner and P. Herrmann (2005) The Effect of Denmark Strait Overflow on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04602, doi:10.1029/2004GL022112. html


    Schmittner, A., M. Sarnthein, H. Kinkel, G. Bartoli, T. Bickert, M. Crucifix, D. Crudeli, J. Groeneveld, F. Kösters, U. Mikolajewicz, C. Millo, J. Reimer, P. Schäfer, D. Schmidt, B. Schneider, M. Schulz, S. Steph, R. Tiedemann, M. (2004) Global Impact of the Panamanian Seaway Closure, EOS, 85, 526.

    Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and A. J. Weaver (2004) The Atlantic-Pacific seesaw, J. Climate, 17, 2033-2038.

    Ewen, T., A.J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2004) Modelling carbon cycle feedbacks during abrupt climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 431-448.


    Saenko, O. A., A. J. Weaver and A. Schmittner (2003) Atlantic deep circulation controlled by freshening in the Southern Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1754, doi:10.1029/2003GL017681. html

    Schmittner, A. (2003) Southern Ocean sea ice and radiocarbon ages of glacial bottom waters, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 213, 53-62, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00291-7. html

    Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2003) The ventilation of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum - a comparison between simulated and observed radiocarbon ages, Paleoceanogr., 18 (2). doi:10.1029/2002PA000762. html

    Schmittner, A., Saenko, O. A. and Weaver,A. J. (2003) Coupling of the hemispheres in observations and simulations of glacial climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 22, 659-671.doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00184-1. html


    Saenko, O. A., Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) On the role of wind-driven sea ice motion on ocean ventilation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3376-3395.

    Meissner, K. J., Schmittner, A., Wiebe, E. C. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Simulations of Heinrich Events in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 10.1029/2001GL013514.

    Schmittner, A., Meissner, K. J., Eby, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Forcing of the deep ocean circulation in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2001PA000633. html

    Schmittner, A. and Clement, A. C. (2002) Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation to tropical and high latitude freshwater forcing during the last glacial-interglacial cycle, Paleoceanogr., 17, 10.1029/2000PA000591. html

    Schmittner, A., Yoshimori, M. and Weaver, A. J. (2002) Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system, Science, 295, 1489-1493. Abstract 


    Weaver, A. J., Eby, M., Wiebe, E. C., Bitz, C. M., Duffy, P. B., Ewen, T. L., Fanning, A. F., Holland, M. M., MacFadyen, A., Saenko, O., Schmittner, A., Wang, H. and Yoshimori,M. (2001) The UVic Earth System Climate Model: Model Description, Climatology and Applications to Past, Present and Future Climates, Atmos.-Ocean, 4, 361-428.

    Schmittner, A. and Weaver, A. J. (2001) Dependence of multiple climate states on ocean mixing parameters, Geoph. Res. Let., 28, 1027-1030.

    Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F., (2001) A seasonally forced model for paleoclimate studies, J. Climate, 14, 1055-1068.


    Appenzeller, C., Stocker, T.F., and Schmittner, A. (2000) Climate change and natural climate variability: chance for surprise? Integr. Assessment, 1, 301-306.

    Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000) Enhanced Atlantic freshwater export during El Nino, Geoph. Res. Let., 27, 1163-1166.

    Schmittner, A., Appenzeller, C. and Stocker, T. F. (2000) Validation of parametrisations for the meridional energy and moisture transport used in simple climate models, Clim. Dyn., 16, 63-77.


    Joos, F., Plattner, G.-K., Stocker, T.F., Marchal, O. and Schmittner, A. (1999) Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2, Science, 284, 464-467. Abstract

    Schmittner, A. and Stocker, T. F. (1999) The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments, J. Climate, 12,1117-1133.


    Stocker, T. F. and Schmittner, A. (1997) Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation, Nature, 388, 862-865. html

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