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Burke Hales

Burke Hales photo

Discipline: Ocean Ecology and Biogeochemistry
Office: Burt 344
Phone: 541-737-8121
Fax: 541-737-2064
Vita or Résumé (PDF)


Biogeochemical Oceanography

Research Interests

Ocean-Margin Carbon Cycling: Study of the processes impacting the state of aqueous carbonate chemistry in estuarine and coastal waters, and effects on ocean acidification and hypoxia.

Coastal Oceanography: Analysis and synthesis of the physics, biology, and chemistry of the coastal ocean, using observations collected with high-speed sampling and analysis systems.

Mesoscale Surface Ocean Processes:  Study of the physics, biology, and chemistry of the surface ocean, using observations collected with high-speed sampling and analysis systems.

Analytical Environmental Chemistry:  Development of sensors and systems for high-speed and robust measurement of ocean chemistry.

Benthic Biogeochemistry:  In situ field measurements of sediment pore water chemistry and numerical models of transport and chemical kinetics in sediments. 

Current Research

Coastal ocean carbon cycles; Ocean acidification monitoring and experimentation; measurement and experimental manipulation technology.


BS, University of Washington (Chemical Engineering), 1988
MS, University of Washington (Chemical Oceanography), 1992
PhD, University of Washington (Chemical Oceanography), 1995


Waldbusser, G. G., M. W. Gray, B. Hales, C. J. Langdon, B. A. Haley, I. Gimenez, S. Smith, E. L. Brunner, G. Hutchinson, 2015.  Slow shell building by native oyster larvae, a trait for resiliency to acute ocean acidification impacts,  Science, submitted.

Hales, B., A. Suhrbier, G. G. Waldbusser, R. A. Feely, and J. Newton, 2015.  The carbonate Chemistry of the ‘fattening line’ Willapa Bay, 2011-2014.  Estuaries and Coasts, in review.

Waldbusser, G. G., B. Hales, C. J. Langdon, B. A. Haley, P. Schrader, E. L. Brunner, M. W. Gray, C. A. Miller, I. Gimenez, and G. Hutchinson, 2015.  Ocean acidification has multiple modes of action on bivalve larvae. PLOS ONE, PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128376. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128376 .

Salisbury, J. B. Jonsson, W. Balch, S. Chakraborty, B. Chapron, B. Hales, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, J. Mathis, N. Reul, S. Signorini, D. Vandemark, R. Wanninkhof, and K. Yates, 2015.  The role of present and future satellite data for ocean acidification science. Oceanography 28(2):108–121,

Barton, A., G. G. Waldbusser, R. A. Feely, S. B. Weisberg, J. A. Newton, B. Hales, S. Cudd, B. Eudeline, C. Langdon, I. Jefferds, T. King, and K. Mclaughlin, 2015.  Impacts of coastal acidification on the Pacific Northwest shellfish industry and adaptation strategies implemented in response. Oceanography 28(2):146–159, y.

Pfeiffer-Hebert, A., F. Prahl, B. Hales, J. Lerczak, S. Pierce, M. Levine, 2015.  High-resolution sampling of methane transport in the Columbia River nearfield plume:  Implications for sources and sinks in a river-dominated estuary.  Limnol. Oceanogr., in revision.

Fuchsman, K, A. Devol, Z. Chase, C. Reimers, and B. Hales, 2015.  Benthic fluxes on the Oregon shelf.  Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, in press.

*Evans, W., B. Hales, P. Strutton, K. Shearman, and J. Barth, 2015.  Failure to bloom:Intense upwelling results in negligible phytoplankton response and prolonged CO2 outgassing over the Oregon Shelf.  J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/2014JC010580.

Reum, J., S. Alin, N. Bednarsek, R. A. Feely, B. Hales, W. Evans, and P. McElhany, 2015.  Temperature-pCO2 covariability in upwelling systems and the design of ocean acidification experiments.  Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu231.

Waldbusser, G. G., B. Hales, C. J. Langdon, B. A. Haley, P. Schrader, E. L. Brunner, M. W. Gray, C. A. Miller, and I. Gimenez, 2014. Experimental Evidence for Saturation State Impacts on Early Larval Bivalves.  Nature Climate Change, DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2479

Bednarsek, N., R. A. Feely, J. Reum, W. Peterson, J. Menkel, S. Alin, and B. Hales, 2014.  Limacina Helicina shell dissolution indicates habitat decline due to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem.  Proc. Royal Sci., Proc. B 2014 281, 20140123.

*Kavanaugh , M. T., S. Emerson, B. Hales, R. Letelier, D. Lockwood, and P. Quay, 2014.  Spatial variability of controls on primary and net community production across North-East Pacific seascapes.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 59, 2013–2027, doi:10.4319/lo.2014.59.6.2013.

*Crosswell, J. R., M. Wetz, B. Hales, and H. Paerl, 2014.  Globally-significant CO2 emissions from shallow coastal waters during hurricane passage.  Limnology and Oceanography 59, 2014, 1651–1665 doi:10.4319/lo.2014.59.5.1651

Bakker, D. E. et al. (Hales is 31st of 78 co-authors), 2013.  An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2). Earth System Science Data Discussions, 6, 465-512, doi:10.5194/essdd-6-465-2013.

Waldbusser, G. G., E. Brunner, B. Haley, B. Hales, F. Prahl, and C. Langdon, 2013. A developmental and energetic basis linking larval oyster shell formation to ocean acidification.  Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/grl.50449.

*Harris, K.E., M.D. DeGrandpre, and B. Hales, 2013.  Aragonite saturation states in a coastal upwelling zone, Geophy. Res. Lett., DOI: 10.1002/grl.50460.

*Evans, W., B. Hales, and P. Strutton, 2013.  Air-water CO2 fluxes in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 117 260-272 doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2012.12.003.

*Kavanaugh, M. T., B. Hales, M. Saraceno, Y. H. Spitz, A. E. White, and R. M. Letelier, 2013. Towards a quantitative framework for pelagic seascape ecology.  Progress in Oceanography 120, 291-304.

Takahashi, T., C. Sweeney, B. Hales, D.W. Chipman, T. Newberger, J.G. Goddard,R.A. Iannuzzi, and S.C. Sutherland. 2012. The changing carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean. Oceanography  25(3):26–37,

Dunne, J. P., B. Hales, and R. Toggweiler, 2012.Implications of sediment CaCO3 preservation efficiency controls for global CaCO3 cycling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles GB3023, doi:10.1029/2010GB003935.

*Evans, W., B. Hales, P. Strutton, and D. Ianson, 2012. Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the western Canadian coastal margin. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2012.01.003.

*Crosswell, J. R., M. Wetz, B, Hales, and H. Paerl, 2012.  Air-water CO2 fluxes and dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in the microtidal, seasonally-stratified Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina J. Geophys. Res. C: Oceans C08017, doi:10.1029/2012JC007925.

*Barton, A., B. Hales, G. Waldbusser, C. Langdon, and R. Feely, 2012.  The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification impacts.  Limnology and Oceanography 57, 698-710, doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.3.0698. 

Hales, B., P. Strutton, M. Saraceno, R. Letelier, T. Takahashi, R. Feely, C. Sabine, and F. Chavez, 2012.  Satellite-based prediction of pCO2 in coastal waters. Progress in Oceanography, 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.03.001.

Hales, B., and T. Takahashi, 2012.  Mesoscale physical and biogeochemical responses to iron fertilization in the upper layers of the southern ocean iron experiment (SOFeX) area.  J. Geophys. Res. C: Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC006956.

Falkowski, P. G. et al (Hales is 6th of 18 co-authors), 2011.  Ocean de-oxygenation:  Past, present, and future.  Eos Trans. AGU, 92, 409–410, doi:10.1029/2011EO460001.

Ho, D. T., C. L. Sabine, D. Hebert, D. S. Ullman, R. Wanninkhof, P. G. Strutton, R. C. Hamme, B. Hales, J. B. Edson, and B. R. Hargreaves, 2011.  Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment: Setting the Stage. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00F08, doi:10.1029/2010JC006852.

*Evans, W., B. Hales, and P. Strutton, 2011. The seasonal cycle of surface ocean pCO2 on the Oregon shelf, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C05012, doi:10.1029/2010JC006625.

*Holser, R., M. Goni, and B. Hales, 2010. Design and application of a semi-automated filtration system to study the distribution of particulate organic carbon in the water column of a coastal upwelling system, Mar. Chem. 123, 67-77.

Juranek, L.W., Feely, R.A., Peterson, W.T., Alin, S.R., Hales, B., Peterson, J., Lee, K., and Sabine, C.L., 2009. A novel method for determination of aragonite saturation state on the continental shelf of central Oregon using multi-parameter relationships with hydrographic data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L01601, doi:10.1029/2009GL040423.

Hauri, C., N. Gruber, S. Alin, V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, B. Hales, G.-K. Plattner and P. Wheeler., 2009.  Ocean acidification in the California Current system. Oceanography 22, 60-71.

Hales, B., D. Hebert, and J. Marra, 2009.  Turbulent supply of nutrients to phytoplankton at the New England Shelfbreak Front.  J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2008JC005011.

Hales, B., R. Vaillancourt, L. Prieto, J. Marra, R. Houghton, and D. Hebert, 2009. High-resolution surveys of the biogeochemistry of the New England shelfbreak front during Summer, 2002.  J. Mar. Syst., doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.024.

Houghton, R. W., R. D. Vaillancourt, J. Marra, D. Hebert, and B. Hales, 2009.  Upwelling subduction and productivity at the New England shelfbreak front. J. Mar. Syst., doi 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.023.

Takahashi, T., et al., (Hales is 7th of 31 co-authors), 2009. Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans.  Deep-Sea Res., doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.009.

Fabry, V., C. Langdon, W. Balch, A. G. Dickson, R. A. Feely, B. Hales, D. A. Hutchins, J. A. Kleypas, and C. L. Sabine, 2008.  Ocean Acidification’s Effects on Marine Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry.  EOS 89, 143-144.

Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, J. M. Hernandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales, 2008.  Evidence for upwelling of corrosive ‘acidified’ water onto the continental shelf.  Science 320, 1490-1492.

*Wetz, M. S., B. Hales, and P.A. Wheeler, 2008.  Degradation of diatom-derived dissolved and particulate organic matter: implications for coastal C and N biogeochemistry. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77, 422-432.

Prieto L., R. D. Vaillancourt, B. Hales, and J. Marra, 2008. On the relationship between carbon fixation efficiency and bio-optical characteristics of phytoplankton. J. Plankton Res. 30, 43-56.

Chase, Z., P. G. Strutton, and B. Hales, 2007.  Iron links river runoff and shelf width to phytoplankton biomass along the north east Pacific margin.  Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L04607, doi:10.1029/2006GL028069.

*Wetz, M. S., B. Hales, Z. Chase, P. A. Wheeler, and M. M. Whitney, 2006. Riverine input of macronutrients, iron, and organic matter to the coastal ocean off Oregon, U.S.A., during the winter. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 2221-2231.

Hales, B., L. Karp-Boss, A. Perlin, and P. Wheeler, 2006. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB3001, doi:10.1029/2005GB002517.

*Bandstra, L., B. Hales, and T. Takahashi, 2006. High-frequency measurement of seawater total carbon dioxide. Mar. Chem. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.009.

Hales, B., J. N. Moum, P. Covert, and A. Perlin, 2005. Irreversible nitrate fluxes due to turbulent mixing in a coastal upwelling system. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10S11, doi:10.1029/2004JC002685.

Vaillancourt, R., J. Marra, R. Houghton, L. Prieto, B. Hales, and D. Hebert, 2005. Light absorption and scattering by particles and CDOM at the New England shelfbreak front during Summer. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, doi:10.1029/2005GC000999.

Chase, Z., B. Hales, and T. Cowles, 2005. Distribution and variability of iron input to Oregon coastal waters during the upwelling season J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10S12, doi:10.1029/2004JC002590.

Hales, B., T. Takahashi and L. Bandstra, 2005. Atmospheric CO2 uptake by a coastal upwelling system Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002295

Hales, B., D. Chipman and T. Takahashi, 2004. High-frequency measurement of partial pressure and total concentration of carbon dioxide in seawater using microporous hydrophobic membrane contactors. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 2, 356-364.

Karp, L., P. Wheeler, B. Hales, and P. Covert, 2004.  Distributions and variability of POM in a coastal upwelling system. Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans109, C09010, doi:10.1029/2003JC002184.

Hales, B., and T. Takahashi, 2004.  High-resolution biogeochemical investigation of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during the aesops (u. S. Jgofs) program. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB3006, doi:10.1029/2003GB002165.

Coale, K. H., and others; (Hales is 13th in list of 42 co-authors), 2004. Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment  (SOFeX): Iron, Silicon and Light Interactions in Antarctic Waters. Science304, 408-414

Hales, B., T. Takahashi, and A. van Geen. 2004.  High-frequency measurement of seawater chemistry:  Flow-injection analysis of macronutrients. Limnology and Oceanography:  Methods 2,91–101

Hales, B., 2003.  Respiration, dissolution, and the lysocline.  Paleoceanography, 18, 1099-1113

Hales, B. and T. Takahashi, 2002. The Pumping Seasoar:  A high resolution seawater sampling platform. J. Tech. 19, 1096-1104

Hales, B., Sweeney, C., and Takahashi, T., 2001.  Small-scale variability in the Ross Sea.  Oceanography14, 90-91.

Alleau Y., Colbert D., Covert P., Haley B., Qiu X., Collier R., Falkner K., Hales B., Prahl, F. and Gordon L., 2001. Th-234 applied to particle removal rates from the surface ocean: a mathematical treatment revisited. Geophys. Res. Letters28, 2855-2857.

Sweeney, C., W. O. Smith, B. Hales, R. R. Bidigare, C. A. Carlson, L. A. Codispoti, L. I. Gordon, D. A. Hansel, F. J. Millero, M. M. Park, and T. T. Takahashi, 2000. Nutrient and carbon uptake ratios and fluxes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Deep-Sea Research II 47, 3395-3422.

Hales, B. and S. R. Emerson, 1997.  Evidence in support of first-order dissolution kinetics for calcite in seawater.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 48, 317-327

Hales, B., L. Burgess, and S. R. Emerson, 1997. An absorbance-based fiber-optic sensor for CO2(aq) measurement in porewaters of sea floor sediments. Marine Chemistry, 59, 51-62

Hales, B. and S. R. Emerson, 1997. Calcite dissolution in sediments of the Ceara Rise: In situ measurements of porewater O2, pH, and CO2(aq). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 501-514.

Hales, B. and S. R. Emerson, 1996.  Calcite dissolution in sediments of the Ontong-Java Plateau: In situ measurements of porewater O2 and pH. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 527-541.

Hales, B., S. R. Emerson, and D. E. Archer, 1994.  Respiration and dissolution in sediments of the western North Atlantic:  Estimates from models of in situ microelectrode measurements of porewater oxygen and pH.  Deep-Sea Research 41, 695-719.

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